Guide Italian Critics of Capitalism

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In the eyes of capital, things and human beings appear in the world only insofar as they are profitable: we still experience this years after the first edition of Kapital in various ways that are highly relevant. Why, then, read Kapital once again, when its prognoses have become so realistic in our time? When the concentration of big industries, the privatization of communication networks, the industrialization of agriculture immediately suggest the need for their political control; when the public assets of the earth must be protected against their capitalist privatization; when the destruction of nature cries for global control — and when such demands are no longer a political taboo?

Das Kapital lays bare the covert violence initiated by capitalism and the real sources of wealth: actual labour, the cooperation in a society of knowledge and skills grown up over generations. It is anything but fatalistic or mechanistic. In the end, we are confronted by the insight that the constraints to which we are subject are man-made, and can therefore be changed by human beings.

And they must be changed if the earth is not to become a desert and humankind an appendage of the profit machine; if societies are not to live under than their possibilities. RE: Das Kapital. Jahrhundert Regarding Capital. Political Economy in the Twenty-First Century. In this volume, edited by Mathias Greffrath and published by Kunstmann-Verlag, economists, philosophers, social scientists and journalists examine central statements and categories of capital exploitation, automation, revolution, monopoly, surplus value, resistance, violence, nature, cooperation, alienation and test their usefulness for a deepened understanding of the present.

The interview was originally published here and was republished with permission from Goethe-Institut.

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Author: Mathias Greffrath is a writer and journalist. Both black men and Native American men in the United States are nearly three times, Hispanic men nearly two times, more likely to die of police shootings than white men. Violence against women and the expropriation of their unpaid labor, as well as the higher level of exploitation of their paid labor, are integral to the way in which power is organized in capitalist society—and how it seeks to divide rather than unify the population.

The mass media-propaganda system, part of the larger corporate matrix, is now merging into a social media-based propaganda system that is more porous and seemingly anarchic, but more universal and more than ever favoring money and power. War, engineered by the United States and other major powers at the apex of the system, has become perpetual in strategic oil regions such as the Middle East, and threatens to escalate into a global thermonuclear exchange.

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A new Cold War and nuclear arms race is in the making between the United States and Russia, while Washington is seeking to place road blocks to the continued rise of China. The Trump administration has created a new space force as a separate branch of the military in an attempt to ensure U. Sounding the alarm on the increasing dangers of a nuclear war and of climate destabilization, the distinguished Bulletin of Atomic Scientists moved its doomsday clock in to two minutes to midnight, the closest since , when it marked the advent of thermonuclear weapons.

Increasingly severe economic sanctions are being imposed by the United States on countries like Venezuela and Nicaragua, despite their democratic elections—or because of them. Trade and currency wars are being actively promoted by core states, while racist barriers against immigration continue to be erected in Europe and the United States as some 60 million refugees and internally displaced peoples flee devastated environments. Migrant populations worldwide have risen to million, with those residing in high-income countries constituting more than 14 percent of the populations of those countries, up from less than 10 percent in Meanwhile, ruling circles and wealthy countries seek to wall off islands of power and privilege from the mass of humanity, who are to be left to their fate.

More than three-quarters of a billion people, over 10 percent of the world population, are chronically malnourished. Around forty million Americans, representing one out of eight households, including nearly thirteen million children, are food insecure. The Anthropocene epoch, first ushered in by the Great Acceleration of the world economy immediately after the Second World War, has generated enormous rifts in planetary boundaries, extending from climate change to ocean acidification, to the sixth extinction, to disruption of the global nitrogen and phosphorus cycles, to the loss of freshwater, to the disappearance of forests, to widespread toxic-chemical and radioactive pollution.

Biologists expect that half of all species will be facing extinction by the end of the century. Earth System scientists warn that the world is now perilously close to a Hothouse Earth , in which catastrophic climate change will be locked in and irreversible. Nevertheless, major energy corporations continue to lie about climate change, promoting and bankrolling climate denialism—while admitting the truth in their internal documents. These corporations are working to accelerate the extraction and production of fossil fuels, including the dirtiest, most greenhouse gas-generating varieties, reaping enormous profits in the process.

In response to scientific reports on climate change, Exxon Mobil declared that it intends to extract and sell all of the fossil-fuel reserves at its disposal.

Criticism of capitalism

Capitalist countries across the board are putting the accumulation of wealth for a few above combatting climate destabilization, threatening the very future of humanity. The mode of economic accounting intrinsic to capitalism designates as a value-generating good or service anything that passes through the market and therefore produces income.

As environmental economist K. We have now reached a point in the twenty-first century in which the externalities of this irrational system, such as the costs of war, the depletion of natural resources, the waste of human lives, and the disruption of the planetary environment, now far exceed any future economic benefits that capitalism offers to society as a whole. The accumulation of capital and the amassing of wealth are increasingly occurring at the expense of an irrevocable rift in the social and environmental conditions governing human life on earth.

Some would argue that China stands as an exception to much of the above, characterized as it is by a seemingly unstoppable rate of economic advance though carrying with it deep social and ecological contradictions. Yet Chinese development has its roots in the Chinese Revolution, carried out by the Chinese Communist Party headed by Mao Zedong, whereby it liberated itself from the imperialist system. This allowed it to develop for decades under a planned economy largely free of constraints from outside forces, establishing a strong agricultural and industrial economic base.

China, therefore, stands not so much for the successes of late capitalism but rather for its inherent limitations. The current Chinese model, moreover, carries within it many of the destructive tendencies of the system of capital accumulation. How did these disastrous conditions characterizing capitalism worldwide develop? An understanding of the failure of capitalism, beginning in the twentieth century, requires a historical examination of the rise of neoliberalism, and how this has only served to increase the destructiveness of the system.

Only then can we address the future of humanity in the twenty-first century. Many of the symptoms of the failure of capitalism described above are well-known. Nevertheless, they are often attributed not to capitalism as a system, but simply to neoliberalism, viewed as a particular paradigm of capitalist development that can be replaced by another, better one. For many people on the left, the answer to neoliberalism or disaster capitalism is a return to welfare-state liberalism, market regulation, or some form of limited social democracy, and thus to a more rational capitalism.

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It is not the failure of capitalism itself that is perceived as the problem, but rather the failure of neoliberal capitalism. In contrast, the Marxian tradition understands neoliberalism as an inherent outgrowth of late capitalism, associated with the domination of monopoly-finance capital. A critical-historical analysis of neoliberalism is therefore crucial both to grounding our understanding of capitalism today and uncovering the reason why all alternatives to neoliberalism and its capitalist absolutism are closed within the system itself.

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  5. He strongly condemned labor legislation, compulsory social insurance, trade unions, unemployment insurance, socialization or nationalization , taxation, and inflation as the enemies of his refurbished liberalism. They strongly challenged his ahistorical depiction of a harmonious capitalism that promoted free exchange and free trade through the market mechanism. Likewise, it was noted that Mises advocated a strong state to repress working-class struggles in the name of a self-regulating market system, even when state action on behalf of workers was condemned as anti-free market and a form of class terror.

    It was designed to provide the intellectual basis for capitalist class warfare against not only socialism, but all attempts at social regulation and social democracy: a no-quarter-given attack on the working class. In the s to s, following the Great Depression and the Second World War, neoliberal ideology waned in the context of the deepening crisis of capitalism. In the early s, as the storm clouds gathered over Europe, Mises served as an economic advisor to Austrofascist Chancellor-dictator Engelbert Dollfuss prior to the Nazi takeover of Austria.

    Meanwhile, Hayek was recruited by the London School of Economics at the instigation of the early neoliberal British economist Lionel Robbins. Spurred on by increased state spending particularly on the military in the context of the Cold War , the rebuilding of the war-torn European and Japanese economies, the expansion of the sales effort, waves of automobilization in both the United States and Europe, and two major regional wars in Asia—capitalist economies grew rapidly for a quarter-century.

    Nevertheless, the tendency toward economic stagnation already exhibited in the s remained as a structural flaw of the system, temporarily masked by the so-called Golden Age of rapid growth and increasing income for workers that immediately followed the Second World War. The giant corporations of monopoly capitalism succeeded in appropriating ever-greater surplus in both absolute and relative terms, which was concentrated in the hands of ever-fewer wealth holders, leading to a tendency toward overaccumulation of capital and manufacturing overcapacity, countered in part by a massive expansion of the sales effort, militarism, and imperialism, but with ever-lessening effect in stimulating the economy.

    Italian Critics of Capitalism | eBay

    This was associated with a slowdown in the U. The major stimuli that sparked the post-Second World War boom had all waned, leaving the advanced capitalist economies in the doldrums. The first response to the structural crisis of the capitalist system that emerged in the s was to utilize Keynesian demand-promotion to expand state spending. Inflation, which depreciates accumulated wealth held in the form of monetary assets, is a much greater immediate threat to the position of the capitalist class than is economic stagnation, while for the working class the situation is reversed.

    No doubt remembering the devastating Marxist critiques of neoliberal ideology in the s, they eschewed the label neoliberal , which Mises himself had adopted in , and which had been put forward in the Walter Lippmann Colloquium in Paris that Mises and Hayek attended. In this way, as Michel Foucault argued, it was converted into a kind of biopolitics. Central to neoliberal philosophy from the beginning was the defense of concentrated corporate capital and class dynasties, which were portrayed as representing free-market competition and entrepreneurship.

    Neoliberalism as an economic ideology was largely ineffectual in normal economic-policy terms, judged by its lack of success in promoting growth, since, like neoclassical economics itself, it sought to deny or rationalize the reality of an economy dominated by big business and concentrated power. Globalization meant not only new markets, but, more importantly—through the global labor arbitrage—the appropriation of huge economic surpluses from the overexploitation of low-wage labor in the periphery that ended up in the financial coffers of multinational corporations and wealthy individuals in the rich countries.

    Meanwhile, digital technology created the basis of a new globalized surveillance capitalism, buying and selling information on the population, primarily motivated by the sales effort, leading to the creation of enormous information-technology monopolies. Vast increases in inequality and wealth were justified as returns for innovation, always attributed to a very few rather than as the collective product of society. In the new era of expropriation, all was up for grabs: education, health systems, transportation, housing, land, cities, prisons, insurance, pensions, food, entertainment.

    In new interview, Francis strongly defends criticisms of capitalism

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